Iran is the 18th largest country in the world in terms of area at 1,648,195 km. Tehran is the country’s capital and largest city, as well as its leading cultural and economic center with the population of 12.18 million.
Official language (s): Persian
Government: Islamic Republic
National Day: 1st April
Time Zone: UTC +3:30
Population: 74,961,702 (2011 – preliminary census results)
Population Density: 45/km2
Number of Households: 20,703,953
Household size average: 3.6
Population Growth Rate: 1.3% (2006 – 2011)
Literacy Rate: 84.6%
North of Tehran
Tabiat Bridge – Tehran
The political system of the Islamic Republic is based on the 1979 Constitution. The system comprises several intricately connected governing bodies. The Supreme Leader of Iran is responsible for delineation and supervision of the general policies of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The Supreme Leader is also Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces. The heads of the judiciary, state radio and television networks, the commanders of the police and military forces and six of the twelve members of the Council of Guardians are appointed by the Supreme Leader.
After the Supreme Leader, the Constitution defines the President of Iran as the highest state authority. The President is elected by universal suffrage for a term of four years and can only be re-elected for one term.
According to the Islamic Republic of Iran’s Constitution, the legislative power in Iran’s political system comprises the Islamic Parliament and the Guardian Council of the Constitution. The Guardian Council is to be constituted to safeguard Islamic laws and the Constitution and to verify the compatibility of legislation passed by the Islamic Parliament of Iran with them.
Based on the Constitution, Guardian Council is formed and established to check parliament approvals in terms of their consistency with general guidelines and the Constitution. Parliament members are elected directly by the secret vote of the public and the term of membership of the Islamic Parliament of Iran is four years.
Parliament of Iran
Iran’s population increased dramatically during the latter half of the 20th century. In recent years, however, Iran’s birth rate has dropped significantly. Studies project that Iran’s rate of population growth will continue to slow until it stabilizes above 90 million by 2050. More than half of the population is under the age of 24, one quarter being 15 years of age or younger. Iran is ethnically and linguistically diverse, with some cities, such as Tehran, bringing various ethnic groups together.
Age Pyramid – 2014
Population Density by Province – 2006